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Plasmodium falciparum is the dominant species followed by P. vivax. These two species account for 60% and 40% of all malaria cases respectively. P. malariae accounts only to less than 1% of cases and is restricted in its distribution. P. ovale is rarely reported. The relative frequency of the species varies from place to place and from season to season. P. falciparum is responsible for most, if not all, epidemics of malaria in Ethiopia . Anopheles arabiensis is the main vector in Ethiopia . An. pharoensis, An. funestus and An. nili are considered secondary vectors.

P. falciparum in Ethiopia is resistant to chloroquine and has recently shown resistance to Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP), the first line antimalarial drug for treatment of falciparum malaria in the last few years. This has triggered a shift to more effective antimalarials, particularly Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT); with Arthemeter Lumefantrine (AL) now the first line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. No ACT resistant P. falciparum has been detected and a recent study has shown that AL is fully effective against uncomplicated falciparum malaria infection. Any non respondence to AL are treated with quinine. As AL is not yet recommended for infants under 5kg body weight and pregnant women, quinine is used to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in these groups. P. vivax responds well to chloroquine and chloroquine alone is used to treat confirmed P. vivax cases. In the absence of diagnosis non severe case are treated with AL first and then with chloroquine if clinical symptoms are highly suggestive of malaria. Quinine injections are used to treat sever and complicated falciparum malaria cases.

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Last updated: Oct. 28 2007

Copyright © 2007 CNHDE.
















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Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Health Workers in Ethiopia, 2nd Edition